Tuesday, October 18, 2011

Allowable Wine Additives



In line with my natural wines post yesterday, I thought it was interesting to note what additives or adjuncts are allowed by the Federal government. By the way, according to the ATF Ruling 85-4, (1) Any grape fruit, citrus or agricultural wine may be designated "natural" if it is made without added alcohol or brandy as specified in 27 CFR 4.21. No other type of wine may be designated as "natural." Kind of interesting that it has nothing to do with farming practices, nor with what is used to make the wine itself nor the processes.

(Note that GRAS is an acronym for Generally Recognized As Safe.)

MATERIALS AUTHORIZED FOR THE TREATMENT OF WINE AND JUICE
  • Acacia (gum arabic): To clarify and to stabilize wine. The amount used shall not exceed 16 lbs/1000 gals (1.92 g/L) of wine. 21 CFR 184.1330 (GRAS). Preliminary conclusion allowing increase from 2 lbs/1000 gals 3/1/2011.
  • Biotin: Yeast nutrient before and during fermentation.The amount used must not exceed that of good commercial practice. 21 CFR 182.8159 (GRAS). Preliminary conclusion allowing use of biotin 8/1/2011.
  • Calcium Pantothenate: Yeast nutrient before and during fermentation.The amount used must not exceed that of good commercial practice. 21 CFR 184.1212 (GRAS). Preliminary conclusion allowing use of calcium pantothenate 6/29/2011.
  • Enzymatic activity Cellulase (beta-glucanase): To clarify and filter wine. The enzyme activity must be derived from Tricoderma longibrachiatum or Tricoderma harzianum. The amount used must not exceed 300 ppm.21 CFR 184.1250 (GRAS) and GRAS Notice No. GRN 000149. Preliminary conclusion allowing use of beta-glucanase derived from Tricoderma harzianum 8/25/2010.
  • Folic Acid: Yeast nutrient before and during fermentation.The amount used must not exceed that of good commercial practice. 21 CFR 172.345 (GRAS). Preliminary conclusion allowing use of folic acid 6/29/2011.
  • Inositol (myo-inositol): Yeast nutrient before and during fermentation.The amount used must not exceed that of good commercial practice. 21 CFR 184.1370 (GRAS). Preliminary conclusion allowing use of Inositol (myo-inositol) 8/1/2011.
  • Magnesium Sulfate: Yeast nutrient before and during fermentation.The amount used must not exceed that of good commercial practice. 21 CFR 184.1443 (GRAS). Preliminary conclusion allowing use of magnesium sulfate 6/29/2011.
  • Niacin: Yeast nutrient before and during fermentation.The amount used must not exceed that of good commercial practice. 21 CFR 184.1530 (GRAS).Preliminary conclusion allowing use of niacin 6/29/2011.
  • Polyvinyl-polypyr-rolidone (PVPP)/ polyvinylimadazole (PVI) polymer: To remove heavy metal ions and sulfides from wine. The amount used to treat the wine must not exceed 80 grams per 100 liters of wine. 21 CFR 173.50 and FDA FCN No. 320. Preliminary conclusion allowing use 8/25/2010.
  • Pyridoxine (pyridoxine hydrochloride): Yeast nutrient before and during fermentation.The amount used must not exceed that of good commercial practice. 21 CFR 184.1676 (GRAS). Preliminary conclusion allowing use of pyridoxine (pyridoxine hydrochloride) 8/1/2011.
PROCESSES AUTHORIZED FOR THE TREATMENT OF WINE, JUICE, AND DISTILLING MATERIAL
  • Reverse osmosis in combination with osmotic transport: To reduce ethyl alcohol content in wine.See reference and limitation for each process in 27 CFR 24.248. The two processes may be used in combination. Preliminary conclusion allowing use in combination 8/25/2010. 
Information taken from the Alcohol and Tobacco Tax and Trade Bureau website.

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